Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969–2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a Cryptobranchid salamander. The incidence of abnormalities/injury and retarded regeneration in C. a. bishopi may have many contributing factors including disease and habitat degradation. Results from this study may provide insight into other amphibian population declines.
Citation: Nickerson CA, Ott CM, Castro SL, Garcia VM, Molina TC, Briggler JT, et al. (2011) Evaluation of Microorganisms Cultured from Injured and Repressed Tissue Regeneration Sites in Endangered Giant Aquatic Ozark Hellbender Salamanders. PLoS ONE6(12): e28906. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028906
Editor: Mark R. Liles, Auburn University, United States of America
Received: August 15, 2011; Accepted: November 16, 2011; Published: December 19, 2011
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Funding: NASA student grant NNX07AM16G, NASA grant NCC2-1362, The St. Louis Zoological Park, and The Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: V. M. Garcia and T. C. Molina are employees of EASI, Wyle Laboratories. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.
The amphibian decline controversy has focused on many factors that affect amphibian populations to varying degrees , including habitat loss and degradation, climate change, pollution, increased ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, direct exploitation, introduced species and disease, including infectious disease , . Although evidence of disease in amphibian populations is not new, early literature on amphibian health in natural populations is quite scattered, deals primarily with anurans and/or local problems, or was initiated because of concerns related to supply and demand and decline of commercial harvest –. In the late 1960's and early 1970's, various biological supply houses noted problems in the commercial supply of amphibians causing Maugh  to comment on “the apparent short supply and diseased state of amphibians collected in nature”.
The review of mycoses of amphibians by Reichenback-Klinke and Elkan  primarily focuses on Basidiobolus ranarum and Saprolegnia parasitica and indicates the dearth of knowledge relating to the distribution and importance of microfungi associated with amphibians. With few exceptions, this void continued for the next two decades –. The impetus for research on amphibian microbes became a major focal point of the 1st World Herpetology Congress in Canterbury, England in 1989, where herpetologists shared their observations on declining frog populations and developed initial strategies to investigate the potential problems. The discovery that the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a zoosporic fungus related to infectious oomycete water molds, Saprolegnia spp., was capable of causing lethal dermatitis in amphibians led to a proliferation of studies . After reviewing studies of microbes implicated in amphibian population declines, including chytridiomycosis, Ranavirus disease, saprolegniosis and Ribieroia spp., Daszak et al.  concluded that “available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis”. Herpetological Review dedicated an entire section to amphibian chytridiomycosis geographical distribution –.
The advances in research on the secretions, structure, and functions of amphibian integument and their products reveal a remarkable complexity of bioactive secretions and diversity of amines, peptides, alkaloids, bufodienolides, and other compounds , . The presence of antimicrobial agents in amphibian skin hypothesized by Csordas and Michl  and Croce et al.  has led to an increased interest in the relationship of the bacteria and fungi present in the skin of amphibians and the antimicrobial peptides and metabolites that they produce –. Some of these peptides and alkaloids can inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi ,  and common cutaneous bacteria from the terrestrial salamander Plethodon cinerus can inhibit pathogenic fungi . Evidence also suggests that symbiotic bacteria may contribute to innate immune defense of some amphibians . While evidence suggests that these antimicrobial compounds and symbiotic bacteria can provide some level of protection for amphibians against microbial invaders –, the connection between disease and amphibian decline has been confirmed for some amphibian populations . However, long-term amphibian studies, especially those including population and environmental data, are so rare that we have very few data to support many claims related to decline or changes in, or the health of, wild amphibian populations . One long-term study subject, the Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganensis bishopi, and its habitat within a 4.6 km section of the North Fork of White River (NFWR), has been the subject of numerous investigations since the intensive 110 day surveys conducted during 1969–1971 , .
In 1969, the 4.6 km research section within the North Fork of White River (NFWR), Ozark County, Missouri, was a crystalline, substantially spring-fed stream located in the least densely human populated area of the second least densely populated county in the state (9 people/sq mi; ). Only one rarely used sportsman's cabin graced the banks of the research section in 1969. The springs and occasionally the river were used as drinking water by some locals and visitors. From 1969 to 1980, 169 days of skin-diving surveys, coupled with environmental sampling, were conducted in this section, including some in every year and within every calendar month, but not every month of every year . Population and ecological studies of the aquatic Ozark Hellbender C. a. bishopi and its habitat were conducted in this section during 1969–1971 , . Other ecological studies included year-round water quality, benthic habitat, macro-invertebrate structure, cottid fish diet studies, and numerous shorter-term studies , . These early studies in the NFWR found an immense and healthy population of C. a. bishopi, as many as 428 individuals/km, and almost no abnormalities/injuries. Only 2.9% of 479 individuals observed in 1969 were abnormal/injured and they exhibited rapid regeneration capabilities , , . Additional surveys between 1972 to 1980 continued to show immense and healthy populations of Ozark Hellbenders , . All surveys during this time period ranged from between 9–12 individual Ozark hellbenders collected per hour per person (Nickerson et al, unpublished data). Reassessment of the ecological characteristics of the NFWR conducted in 2004–2007 revealed extensive habitat alteration and degradation, including increased land development, siltation, sedimentation, and water quality degradation . Community changes included algal and nuisance aquatic vegetation blooms, otter establishment, and fish and macroinvertebrate community alterations . Canoe use within the NFWR significantly increased . Intensive surveys of the NFWR hellbender population conducted in 2005 yielded only 55 individuals, of which 26 (i.e., 47%) had visible abnormalities/injuries, including loss of limbs, limbs with exposed bones, and degeneration of other tissues which did not regenerate or had remarkably retarded regeneration (J. Briggler, unpublished data). The high prevalence of abnormalities/injuries and the lack of the historically characteristic (rapid) regeneration of injured/affected tissue in hellbenders in the NFWR was the impetus for our examination of the microbial community associated with the observed abnormalities/injuries.
Our results reflect our strategy to optimize chances for successful culture of potentially pathogenic microorganisms by using three different media for each sample; blood agar (all purpose growth media), mannitol salts (differential and selective media), Sabouraud's (differential and selective media often used to isolate fungi) (Figure 1).
Swabs from injured (or uninjured control) tissues of six adult hellbenders were streaked onto three different microbiological culture media: Sheep's blood agar (A–G), Mannitol Salt Agar (H), and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (I). * Indicates uninjured control sample.
An evaluation of the microbial flora sampled from C. a. bishopi indicated the presence of common environmental flora from both abnormal/injured and uninjured limbs. A wide variety of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated. While no consistent pattern of bacterial colonization was observed between uninjured and abnormal/injured body parts (Tables 1 and 2), several interesting microbial associations were observed. The genus Aeromonas was identified in 9 separate occasions, although the amphibian pathogenic species Aeromonas hydrophila, was identified only once from an abnormal/injured animal (NFWR 139 - lower lip). Likewise, certain organisms that can cause human infection were also identified, including the opportunistic pseudomonal pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NFWR 135 - right back limb), P. stutzeri (NFWR 134 - right back; NFWR- 135 right back), P. alcaligenes (NFWR – right front), and the pseudomonal-like pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (NFWR 136 – left front limb). In addition, the poultry pathogen Riemerella anatipestifer  was also isolated only from abnormal/injured animals. On rare occasion, one bacterial species would represent the vast majority of the colonies from a given abnormal/injured sample as exemplified by the known human pathogen Granulicatella adiacens (formerly Streptococcus adiacens; ), which represented 91% of the 163 bacterial isolates found on the blood agar plate associated with the NFWR 139 lower lip sample. When using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, only fungi were isolated, except for one plate (from the injured animal NFWR 135 - left front limb) where 4 colonies of Kocuria kristinae (previously Micrococcus) were found, which is a common inhabitant on human skin that has been increasingly associated with infectious disease in humans .
Fungal isolates were consistent with common environmental flora from genera that included Penicillium, Streptomycetes, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Acremonium, Curvularia, and the Class Hyphomycetes (Tables 3, 4, and 5).
The C. a. bishopi population decline in the NFWR is well documented and of significant concern , , . Many reasons for the decline in population and health of the Ozark Hellbender have been suggested, including flooding ,  amphibian harvesting , the use of the anesthetic MS-222 (Tricane) , , the reintroduction and introduction of species including otters and trout , , habitat alteration and degradation , disease including those having a genetic, chemical, or infectious etiology , , , , , –, and the interaction of these factors . Many of these hypothesized causal agents of decline have been investigated to various degrees, yet disease research has largely been limited to B. dendrobatidis –, and prior to our study, the microbial community associated with the abnormalities typifying the affected hellbenders had not been assessed. As a variety of pathogenic microbes have been linked to amphibian declines, it is critical that the microbial community be examined for all potential disease agents and that research not be initially limited to a single potential infectious agent until causation has been properly evaluated and established.
While our microbiological evaluations in this study indicated common environmental organisms in both abnormal/injured and uninjured Ozark Hellbenders, several opportunistic pathogenic organisms were identified that were associated only with the abnormal tissue/injuries of C. a. bishopi, such as Aeromonas hydrophila, a known pathogen of amphibians , , Granulicatella adiacens , Stenotrophomonas malophilia , and a variety of opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonad species - P. aeruginosa , P. stutzeri  and P. alcaligenes . These microbial pathogens are known to form biofilms in the environment and/or in vivo in the infected host. Several of the filamentous fungi isolated in this study, including Penicillium, Fusarium, and Cladosporidium are genera containing opportunistic pathogens that are known to be associated with environmental biofilms –. Multispecies biofilms may interact synergistically yielding an increased resistance to antibacterial agents . While a possible cause and effect role for biofilms in disease progression observed in the Ozark Hellbenders is outside the scope of this study, this observation warrants investigation in future studies. The lack of isolation of the same organism from multiple wounds suggests that none of the organisms identified were the sole etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi. If the immune system of the injured C. a. bishopi were repressed, it is possible that a combination of the isolated opportunistic pathogens may have contributed to the observed tissue damage. The Gram positive opportunistic pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, was isolated from one animal. While the presence of S. pneumoniae may be the result of contamination during collection or processing, the genus Streptococcus has been found by the EPA downstream of our NFWR research site.
Reintroduced or introduced species may not only be a source of pathogenic microbes in the NFWR, but in some cases may also increase injury, and subsequently infection rates by creating open sores. River otters (Lutra or Lontra canadensis) used in reintroduction programs are known to carry a suite of pathogenic microbes, including Gram positive Streptococcus spp. and Gram negative Pseudomonas spp. . Otters reintroduced into Missouri were sourced from Louisiana and could carry many different microbes which are not found in the streams of the Ozark Highlands . We speculate that reintroduced otters may introduce pathogenic microbes into the environment through fecal transmission or direct contact with hellbenders, crayfish (the primary prey of both otters and hellbenders), or other species. In addition, river otters are capable of killing or injuring C. a. bishopi. Non-lethal injuries such as bites or scratches yielding open sores may provide a pathway for pathogens. Non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) are stocked in the NFWR annually. These trout come from multiple hatcheries with multiple water sources and are transferred between hatcheries, which have known reoccurring water quality issues, including harboring pathogenic microorganisms . While we know of no predation of C. a. bishopi by salmonids in the wild, hatchery-raised trout released into the NFWR and other water bodies may serve as a source for pathogens.
Increased recreational use of NFWR may also be a source of hellbender injury and pathogenic microbes. Canoeing and other water activities may disturb or dislodge habitat rocks, inadvertently injuring hellbenders located underneath . Humans may also be a source of pathogens such as S. pneumoniae, one of the opportunistic bacteria found in this study.
The rapid regeneration that historically typified injured hellbenders was not apparent in recent studies of the NFWR population. Based on data collected in 1969, hellbender injuries (i.e., tail holes) induced by tagging healed completely with no sign of infection and no visible scars within two months (Nickerson unpublished data). The remarkable regenerative capacity of salamanders has been known since first reported by Spallanzani in 1769 . Regenerative studies have included phylogenetic, seasonal, and environmental analysis of limb regeneration –. Environmental factors that have been considered to affect regeneration include temperature, diet, photoperiod, parasitism, infection, and quality of terrestrial and aquatic microhabitats . Human-induced alterations to the NFWR and surrounding landscape have resulted in changes to the physical-chemical properties of the NFWR, including nutrient-loading, introduction of estrogenic chemical levels, algal blooms, and a microbial content deemed unsafe for full body contact by state and federal agencies , , . Previous studies investigating the impact of human activities on NFWR water quality revealed relatively high concentrations of total phosphorus (6–52 µg L−1) and total nitrogen (0.35–3.06 mg L−1) in the 4.6 km research site originally investigated by Nickerson and Mays , . The impact of this type of increased nutrient level on the hellbenders was investigated by Solis et al., which focused on a historically populated area, located 11.3 km downstream of the Nickerson and Mays site , . Not unexpectedly, the site studied by Solis et al. indicated that nutrient concentrations (including total phosphorous and nitrogen) exceeded the EPA recommended criteria in two thirds of the samples . However, a direct correlation between these elevated levels and abnormalities/disease of the hellbenders was not supported, as all individual concentrations of nutrients and organic chemicals were at much lower levels than any laboratory and field experiments shown to have deleterious effects on amphibians . Likewise, serum samples from C. a. bishopi collected at the Solis et al. site were analyzed for possible endocrine disrupting chemicals, however, none were detected at levels above the EPA and Missouri Clean Water Commission criteria for aquatic organisms . Thus, the direct impact of increased chemical levels on the hellbenders remains inconclusive.
The impact of eutrophication associated with human activity was further investigated in a periphyton survey of the NFWR in 2006 to determine if changes in the periphyton communities could be a factor in the Ozark Hellbender decline . Some Periphyton, such as cyanobacteria (i.e., blue-green algae) may cause cutaneous damage, neural and hepatic effects, tumor induction, diarrhea, vomiting, respiratory dysfunction, convulsions and occasionally death . The periphyton community within the NFWR 4.6 km Nickerson and Mays research section consisted of diatoms, chlorophytes, and cyanobacteria . The green algae Cladophora spp. achieved relative abundances of >90% of the total periphyton community . Blooms of the benthic, filamentous Cladophora spp. are a visible indicator of eutrophication and are linked to phosphorus concentration with 20 µg µL−1 being the threshold for Cladophora dominance , . High nitrate concentrations are an issue with karst topography such as that in the NFWR drainage  and increases in human usage and poor sewage facilities. Large Cladophora spp. blooms have been a component of the NFWR since at least 1968, but have increased over the decades and large floating algal masses seen during recent summers were not a component of the NFWR 4.6 km section during the early surveys . Increased algal levels are known to increase both biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance, and Cladophora spp mats maintain higher E. coli densities than the surrounding aquatic habitat , . Green algae (Cladophora sp.) mats may have almost ubiquitous populations of E. coli and enterococci, which may survive at least six months of drying . A 2007 study of total coliform (TC) bacteria and Escherichia coli content was conducted at multiple sites and habitats in the NFWR between Mark Twain National Forest Campground Access and Norfork Reservoir, as well as springs which flow into the NFWR . Total coliform levels exceeded the values deemed safe for full body contact by Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) in 70 of 94 individual water samples and 25 of the 94 samples also surpassed concentrations of E. coli deemed safe for full body contact .
Our results do not preclude that an infectious agent caused or exacerbated the tissue damage observed in Ozark Hellbenders, as other microorganisms, which would not grow on the media used in this experiment, may have been present (i.e., the microbial diversity observed in this study is likely a subset of the total microbial diversity). Alternatively, if the immune system of the abnormal/injured C. a. bishopi was suppressed, many of the opportunistic pathogens that were isolated in this study, alone or in combination, may have caused infection which was responsible for or served to exacerbate the tissue damage. As such, the increase in incidence of abnormalities/injuries and retardation of tissue regeneration may have multiple contributing factors including changes in the Ozark Hellbenders' susceptibility to infection and exposure to microorganisms. The Ozark hellbender is a federally listed endangered species that has yet to have successfully reproduced in captivity. The unavailability of healthy Ozark hellbenders, small sample size, and conservation status precluded our ability to evaluate all of Koch's Postulates. However, this study provides the most complete analysis of potential microbial stressors on Ozark hellbenders to date and places these findings in the context of habitat alterations. Follow up studies are planned to identify causative mechanism(s) and environmental factors that are contributing to health and population declines in this endangered species.
Materials and Methods
The Ozark Hellbender, C. a. bishopi, is now listed as endangered and populations have been extirpated and face extinction in much of the former range. The NFWR currently supports only a very small population of C. a. bishopi, of which about 50% within the original NFWR research section of Nickerson and Mays ,  have substantial abnormalities/injuries (J. Briggler unpublished data). On 17 August 2007, we methodically searched a portion of the NFWR by snorkeling and lifting rocks. We located and captured six adult hellbenders, all with abnormalities/injuries (Table 6). Each individual hellbender was placed into a clean bucket filled with river water and then measured, weighed, and individually photographed. All C. a. bishopi were visually inspected for the presence of leeches, injuries, or abnormalities. The feet/limbs showing signs of infection (e.g., lesions, sores or exposed bone) were swabbed with sterile, buffered swabs. In addition, the lower lip of one individual with a raw sore was swabbed (Figure 2). Swabs were then streaked onto three different microbiological culture media: sheep's blood agar (SBA), a general all purpose growth medium that supports the culture of a large number of microorganisms and also indicates hemolytic activity; Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA), primarily selective for halo-tolerant bacteria such as staphylococci; and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDX), primarily selective for fungi (Figure 1). Given the very small population of C. a. bishopi currently existing in the NFWR and given that no animals without abnormality/injury were captured throughout the duration of this study, two feet showing no signs of infection from two C. a. bishopi were swabbed in the same manner and served as uninfected controls. The swabs were streaked onto the different agar plates, and sample plate lids were immediately added and secured with tape. Secured plates were immediately placed into styrofoam coolers with ice packs and transported by vehicle to St. Louis, MO, and flown to the Microbiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (Houston, TX) for microbial identification. Bacterial and fungal isolates were enumerated and then sub-cultured on the medium from the parent culture at room temperature. Bacterial isolates were identified using biochemical analysis with the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Bacterial isolates that could not be identified by the Vitek 2 system were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing using a MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Identification Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Sequences were compared to those on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website for microorganisms. Speciation was reported for isolates having greater than 98% sequence similarity. Fungal isolates were identified by microscopic morphological characteristics .
All individuals sampled were captured from the North Fork of the White River, Ozark County, Missouri on 17 August 2007. A shows a normal left back foot (NFWR 138), B shows lesion on palm of right back foot (NFWR 136), C shows lesion on toes of left front foot (NFWR 136), D shows lesion on right back limb with all toes missing (NFWR 135), E shows lesion on right back limb with all toes missing (NFWR 139), and F shows lesion on lower lip (NFWR 139).
Research was conducted in compliance with applicable animal care guidelines. We also thank the Missouri Department of Conservation for permits to conduct this research. Dr. Lawrence M. Page kindly read and commented on the manuscript. Special thanks to L. Davis for assistance with graphics.
Conceived and designed the experiments: MAN CAN CMO. Performed the experiments: ALP JTB SLC VMG TCM JJT JKB. Analyzed the data: MAN CAN CMO ALP JTB SLC VMG TCM JJT JKB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MAN CMO JTB. Wrote the paper: MAN CAN CMO ALP JB.
- 1. Lannoo M (2005) Amphibian declines: The conservation status of United States species. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1094 p.M. Lannoo2005Amphibian declines: The conservation status of United States speciesBerkley and Los AngelesUniversity of California Press1094
- 2. Halliday T (2005) Diverse phenomena influencing amphibian population declines. In: Lannoo M, editor. Amphibian declines: The conservation status of United States species. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 3–6.T. Halliday2005Diverse phenomena influencing amphibian population declines.M. LannooAmphibian declines: The conservation status of United States speciesBerkeley and Los AngelesUniversity of California Press36
- 3. Beebee TJC, Griffiths RA (2005) The amphibian decline crisis: a watershed for conservation biology? Biological Conservation 125: 271–285.TJC BeebeeRA Griffiths2005The amphibian decline crisis: a watershed for conservation biology?Biological Conservation125271285
- 4. Anonymous (1973) Where have all the frogs gone? Modern Medicine 41: 20–24.Anonymous1973Where have all the frogs gone?Modern Medicine412024
- 5. Gibbs E, Nace G, Emmons M (1971) The live frog is almost dead. Bioscience 21: 1027–1034.E. GibbsG. NaceM. Emmons1971The live frog is almost dead.Bioscience2110271034
- 6. National Academy of Sciences (1974) Amphibians: guidelines for the breeding, care and management of lab animals. Washington D.C.: 162 p.National Academy of Sciences1974Amphibians: guidelines for the breeding, care and management of lab animalsWashington D.C.162
- 7. Maugh TH (1972) Frog shortage possible this winter. Science 178: 387.TH Maugh1972Frog shortage possible this winter.Science178387
- 8. Reichenbach-Klinke H, Elkan E (1965) Amphibia. In: Reichenbach-Klinke H, Elkan E, editors. The principle diseases of lower vertebrates. New York: Academic Press. pp. 209–384.H. Reichenbach-KlinkeE. Elkan1965Amphibia.H. Reichenbach-KlinkeE. ElkanThe principle diseases of lower vertebratesNew YorkAcademic Press209384
- 9. Hutchison JA, Nickerson MA (1970) Comments on the distribution of Basidiobolus ranarum. Mycologia 62: 585–587.JA HutchisonMA Nickerson1970Comments on the distribution of Basidiobolus ranarum.Mycologia62585587
- 10. Nickerson MA, Hutchison JA (1971) A study of the distribution of the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum Eidam in fish, amphibians and reptiles. American Midland Naturalist 86: 500–502.MA NickersonJA Hutchison1971A study of the distribution of the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum Eidam in fish, amphibians and reptiles.American Midland Naturalist86500502
- 11. Nickerson MA, King D, Hutchison JA (1973) Mexican isolates of Basidobolus ranarum Eidam. Southwestern Naturalist 18: 93–94.MA NickersonD. KingJA Hutchison1973Mexican isolates of Basidobolus ranarum Eidam.Southwestern Naturalist189394
- 12. Tills D, Nickerson MA, Hutchison JA (1977) The distribution of the fungus, Basidobolus ranarum Eidam in fish, amphibians, and reptiles of the southern Appalachian Region of the United States. Transactions Kansas Academy of Science 80: 75–78.D. TillsMA NickersonJA Hutchison1977The distribution of the fungus, Basidobolus ranarum Eidam in fish, amphibians, and reptiles of the southern Appalachian Region of the United States.Transactions Kansas Academy of Science807578
- 13. Taylor SK (2001) Chapter 14: Mycoses. In: Wright K, Whitaker BR, editors. Amphibian medicine and captive husbandry. Malabar, Florida: Kreiger Publishing Company. pp. 181–191.SK Taylor2001Chapter 14: Mycoses.K. WrightBR WhitakerAmphibian medicine and captive husbandryMalabar, FloridaKreiger Publishing Company181191
- 14. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2003) Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distribution 9: 141–150.P. DaszakAA CunninghamAD Hyatt2003Infectious disease and amphibian population declines.Diversity and Distribution9141150
- 15. Greenbaum E, Kusamba C, Aristote MM, Reed KD (2008) Amphibian chytrid fungus infections in Hyperolius (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Herpetological Review 39: 70–73.E. GreenbaumC. KusambaMM AristoteKD Reed2008Amphibian chytrid fungus infections in Hyperolius (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.Herpetological Review397073
- 16. Reeves MK (2008) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from three national wildlife refuges in Alaska, USA. Herpetological Review 39: 68–70.MK Reeves2008Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from three national wildlife refuges in Alaska, USA.Herpetological Review396870
- 17. Woodhams DC, Hyatt AD, Boyle DG, Rollins-Smith LA (2008) The northern leopard frog Rana pipiens is a widespread reservoir species harboring Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in North America. Herpetological Review 39: 66–68.DC WoodhamsAD HyattDG BoyleLA Rollins-Smith2008The northern leopard frog Rana pipiens is a widespread reservoir species harboring Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in North America.Herpetological Review396668
- 18. Erspamer V (1994) Bioactive secretions of the amphibian integument. In: Heatwole H, Barthalmus GT, editors. Amphibian biology volume 1: The integument. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surry Beatty and Sons. pp. 178–350.V. Erspamer1994Bioactive secretions of the amphibian integument.H. HeatwoleGT BarthalmusAmphibian biology volume 1: The integumentChipping Norton, NSWSurry Beatty and Sons178350
- 19. Heatwole H, Barthalmus GT, editors. (1994) Amphibian biology volume 1: The integument. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surry Beatty and Sons. 418 p.H. HeatwoleGT Barthalmus1994Amphibian biology volume 1: The integumentChipping Norton, NSWSurry Beatty and Sons418
- 20. Csordas A, Michl H (1969) Primary structure of two oligopeptides of the toxin of Bombina variegata. Toxicon 7: 103–108.A. CsordasH. Michl1969Primary structure of two oligopeptides of the toxin of Bombina variegata.Toxicon7103108
- 21. Croce G, Giglioli N, Bolognani L (1973) Antimicrobial activity in the skin of Bombina variegata pachypus. Toxicon 11: 99–100.G. CroceN. GiglioliL. Bolognani1973Antimicrobial activity in the skin of Bombina variegata pachypus.Toxicon1199100
- 22. Becker MH, Brucker RM, Schwantes CR, Harris RN, Minbiole KPC (2009) The bacterially-produced metabolite violacein is associated with survival in amphibians infected with a lethal disease. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 6635–6638.MH BeckerRM BruckerCR SchwantesRN HarrisKPC Minbiole2009The bacterially-produced metabolite violacein is associated with survival in amphibians infected with a lethal disease.Appl Environ Microbiol7566356638
- 23. Brucker R, Baylor C, Walters R, Lauer A, Harris R, et al. (2008) The identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an antifungal metabolite produced by cutaneous bacteria of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. J Chem Ecol 34: 39–43.R. BruckerC. BaylorR. WaltersA. LauerR. Harris2008The identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an antifungal metabolite produced by cutaneous bacteria of the salamander Plethodon cinereus.J Chem Ecol343943
- 24. Brucker RM, Harris RN, Schwantes CR, Gallaher TN, Flaherty DC, et al. (2008) Amphibian chemical defense: antifungal metabolites of the microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the salamander Plethodon cinereus. J Chem Ecol 34: 1422–1429.RM BruckerRN HarrisCR SchwantesTN GallaherDC Flaherty2008Amphibian chemical defense: antifungal metabolites of the microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the salamander Plethodon cinereus.J Chem Ecol3414221429
- 25. Fedewa L, Lindell A (2005) Inhibition of growth for select Gram-negative bacteria by tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 15: 13–17.L. FedewaA. Lindell2005Inhibition of growth for select Gram-negative bacteria by tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222).Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery151317
- 26. Lauer A, Simon MA, Banning JL, Lam BA, Harris RN (2008) Diversity of cutaneous bacteria with antifungal activity isolated from female four-toed salamanders. The ISME Journal 2: 145–157.A. LauerMA SimonJL BanningBA LamRN Harris2008Diversity of cutaneous bacteria with antifungal activity isolated from female four-toed salamanders.The ISME Journal2145157
- 27. Peterson CL (1979) Age and growth of the Ozark hellbender. Springfield, Missouri: Southwest Missouri State University. 52 p.CL Peterson1979Age and growth of the Ozark hellbenderSpringfield, MissouriSouthwest Missouri State University52
- 28. Rollins-Smith LA, Conlon JM (2005) Antimicrobial peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibian populations. Dev Comp Immunol 29: 589–598.LA Rollins-SmithJM Conlon2005Antimicrobial peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibian populations.Dev Comp Immunol29589598
- 29. Sheafor B, Davidson EW, Parr L, Rollins-Smith L (2008) Antimicrobial peptide defenses in the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, against emerging amphibian pathogens. J Wildl Dis 44: 226–236.B. SheaforEW DavidsonL. ParrL. Rollins-Smith2008Antimicrobial peptide defenses in the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, against emerging amphibian pathogens.J Wildl Dis44226236
- 30. Woodhams DC, Vredenburg VT, Simon M-A, Billheimer D, Shakhtour B, et al. (2007) Symbiotic bacteria contribute to innate immune defenses of the threatened mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa. Biological Conservation 138: 390–398.DC WoodhamsVT VredenburgM-A SimonD. BillheimerB. Shakhtour2007Symbiotic bacteria contribute to innate immune defenses of the threatened mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa.Biological Conservation138390398
- 31. Rollins-Smith LA, Doersam JK, Longcore JE, Taylor SK, Shamblin JC, et al. (2002) Antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 26: 63–72.LA Rollins-SmithJK DoersamJE LongcoreSK TaylorJC Shamblin2002Antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines.Developmental & Comparative Immunology266372
- 32. Simmaco M, Mignogna G, Barra D (1998) Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin: What do they tell us? Peptide Science 47: 435–450.M. SimmacoG. MignognaD. Barra1998Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin: What do they tell us?Peptide Science47435450
- 33. Lauer A, Simon MA, Banning E, Duncan AK, Harris RN (2007) Common cutaneous bacteria from the eastern red-backed salamander can inhibit pathological fungi. Copeia 3: 630–640.A. LauerMA SimonE. BanningAK DuncanRN Harris2007Common cutaneous bacteria from the eastern red-backed salamander can inhibit pathological fungi.Copeia3630640
- 34. Collins JP, Crump ML (2009) Extinction in our times: Global amphibian declines. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 273 p.JP CollinsML Crump2009Extinction in our times: Global amphibian declinesOxfordOxford University Press273
- 35. Blaustein AR, Wake DB, Sousa WP (1994) Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions. Conservation Biology 8: 60–71.AR BlausteinDB WakeWP Sousa1994Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions.Conservation Biology86071
- 36. Nickerson MA, Mays CE (1973) The hellbenders: North American “giant salamanders”. Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Biology and Geology 1: 1–106.MA NickersonCE Mays1973The hellbenders: North American “giant salamanders”.Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Biology and Geology11106
- 37. Nickerson MA, Mays CE (1973) A study of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi. Ecology 54: 1164–1165.MA NickersonCE Mays1973A study of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi.Ecology5411641165
- 38. OSEDA (2011) OSEDA2011Available: http://www.oseda.missouri.edu/historicdata/popsqmi/29153.htm. Accessed 2011 July 20. Available: http://www.oseda.missouri.edu/historicdata/popsqmi/29153.htm. Accessed 2011 July 20.
- 39. Nickerson MA, Pitt AL, Prysby MD (2007) The effects of flooding on hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Daudin, 1803, populations. Salamandra 43: 111–117.MA NickersonAL PittMD Prysby2007The effects of flooding on hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Daudin, 1803, populations.Salamandra43111117
- 40. Cooper HR (1975) Food and feeding selectivity of two cottid species in an Ozark stream. Masters Thesis. Jonesboro, Arkansas: Arkansas State University. 45 p.HR Cooper1975Food and feeding selectivity of two cottid species in an Ozark stream. Masters ThesisJonesboro, ArkansasArkansas State University45
- 41. Hiler WR, Wheeler BJ, Trauth SE (2005) Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) in Arkansas: A comparison between two rivers with a historical perspective. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 59: 88–94.WR HilerBJ WheelerSE Trauth2005Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) in Arkansas: A comparison between two rivers with a historical perspective.Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science598894
- 42. Nickerson MA, Briggler JT (2007) Harvesting as a factor in population decline of a long-lived salamander, the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Grobman. Applied Herpetology 4: 207–216.MA NickersonJT Briggler2007Harvesting as a factor in population decline of a long-lived salamander, the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Grobman.Applied Herpetology4207216
- 43. Nickerson MA, Pitt AL, Tavano JJ (2009) Decline of the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) in the North Fork of White River, Ozark County, Missouri: A historical perspective. 53 p.MA NickersonAL PittJJ Tavano2009Decline of the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) in the North Fork of White River, Ozark County, Missouri: A historical perspective.Final report to the St. Louis Zoo and the Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps. 53 Final report to the St. Louis Zoo and the Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps.
- 44. Yu CY, Liu YW, Chou SJ, Chao MR, Weng BC, et al. (2008) Genomic diversity and molecular differentiation of Riemerella anatipestifer associated with eight outbreaks in five farms. Avian Pathol 37: 273–279.CY YuYW LiuSJ ChouMR ChaoBC Weng2008Genomic diversity and molecular differentiation of Riemerella anatipestifer associated with eight outbreaks in five farms.Avian Pathol37273279
- 45. Siqueira J, Rôças IN (2006) Catonella morbi and Granulicatella adiacens: new species in endodontic infections. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics 102: 259–264.J. SiqueiraIN Rôças2006Catonella morbi and Granulicatella adiacens: new species in endodontic infections.Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics102259264
- 46. Ma E, Wong C, Lai K, Chan E, Yam W, et al. (2005) Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. BMC Infectious Diseases 5: 60.E. MaC. WongK. LaiE. ChanW. Yam2005Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis.BMC Infectious Diseases560
- 47. Briggler J, Utrup J, Davidson C, Humphries J, Groves J, et al. (2007) Hellbender population and habitat viability assessment: final report, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. 46 p.J. BrigglerJ. UtrupC. DavidsonJ. HumphriesJ. Groves2007Hellbender population and habitat viability assessment: final report, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.Apple Valley, Minnesota. 46 Apple Valley, Minnesota.
- 48. Wheeler BA, McCallum ML, Trauth S (2002) Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 56: 250–252.BA WheelerML McCallumS. Trauth2002Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender.Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science56250252
- 49. Nickerson MA, Krysko KL, Owen RD (2003) Habitat differences affecting age class distributions of the hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Southeastern Naturalist 2: 619–629.MA NickersonKL KryskoRD Owen2003Habitat differences affecting age class distributions of the hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis.Southeastern Naturalist2619629
- 50. Byram J (2008) Effects of nitrogen ammonia and MS-222 on Xenopus laevis development and foraging behavior. Masters Thesis. Gainesville: University of Florida. 49 p.J. Byram2008Effects of nitrogen ammonia and MS-222 on Xenopus laevis development and foraging behavior. Masters ThesisGainesvilleUniversity of Florida49
- 51. Byram JK, Nickerson MA (2009) The use of Tricaine (MS-222) in amphibian conservation. pp. 1–15.JK ByramMA Nickerson2009The use of Tricaine (MS-222) in amphibian conservation.115Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps Occasional Papers in Reptile and Amphibian Conservation. Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps Occasional Papers in Reptile and Amphibian Conservation.
- 52. Gall BG, Mathis A (2010) Innate predator recognition and the problem of introduced trout. Ethology 116(1): 47–58.BG GallA. Mathis2010Innate predator recognition and the problem of introduced trout.Ethology11614758
- 53. Trauth SE, Robison HW, Plummer MV (2004) The amphibians and reptiles of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. 421 p.SE TrauthHW RobisonMV Plummer2004The amphibians and reptiles of ArkansasFayettevilleUniversity of Arkansas Press421
- 54. Harshbarger JC, Trauth SE (2002) Squamous cell carcinoma upgrade of the epidermal papilloma reported in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishop). In: McKinnell RB, Carlson DL, editors. Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on the pathology of reptiles and amphibians. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Printing Services. pp. 43–48.JC HarshbargerSE Trauth2002Squamous cell carcinoma upgrade of the epidermal papilloma reported in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishop).RB McKinnellDL CarlsonProceedings of the sixth international symposium on the pathology of reptiles and amphibiansMinneapolisUniversity of Minnesota Printing Services4348
- 55. Miller BT, Miller JL (2005) Prevalence of physical abnormalities in eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations of middle Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 4: 513–520.BT MillerJL Miller2005Prevalence of physical abnormalities in eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations of middle Tennessee.Southeastern Naturalist4513520
- 56. Pfingsten RA (1990) The status and distribution of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Ohio. Herpetological Review 21: 48–51.RA Pfingsten1990The status and distribution of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Ohio.Herpetological Review214851
- 57. Smith BG (1911) A case of defensive self-mutilation in Cryptobranchus. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural Society 9: 64–65.BG Smith1911A case of defensive self-mutilation in Cryptobranchus.Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural Society96465
- 58. Trauth SE, Harshbarger JC, Daniel P (2002) Epidermal papilloma in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) from the Spring River of northern Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 56: 190–197.SE TrauthJC HarshbargerP. Daniel2002Epidermal papilloma in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) from the Spring River of northern Arkansas.Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science56190197
- 59. Briggler J, Ettling M, Wanner C, Schuette M, Duncan M, et al. (2007) Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender). Chytrid fungus. Herpetological Review 38: 174.J. BrigglerM. EttlingC. WannerM. SchuetteM. Duncan2007Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender). Chytrid fungus.Herpetological Review38174
- 60. Briggler J, Larson K, Irwin K (2008) Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) on hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in the Ozark Highlands. Herpetological Review 39: 443–444.J. BrigglerK. LarsonK. Irwin2008Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) on hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in the Ozark Highlands.Herpetological Review39443444
- 61. Bodinof CM, Briggler JT, Duncan MC, Beringer J, Millspaugh JJ (2011) Historic occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis populations from Missouri. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96: 1–7.CM BodinofJT BrigglerMC DuncanJ. BeringerJJ Millspaugh2011Historic occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis populations from Missouri.Diseases of Aquatic Organisms9617
- 62. Julia Manresa M, Vicente Villa A, Gene Giralt A, Gonzalez-Ensenat MA (2009) Aeromonas hydrophila folliculitis associated with an inflatable swimming pool: mimicking Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Pediatr Dermatol 26: 601–603.M. Julia ManresaA. Vicente VillaA. Gene GiraltMA Gonzalez-Ensenat2009Aeromonas hydrophila folliculitis associated with an inflatable swimming pool: mimicking Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.Pediatr Dermatol26601603
- 63. Barribeau SM, Villinger J, Waldman B (2008) Major histocompatibility complex based resistance to a common bacterial pathogen of amphibians. PLoS One 3: e2692.SM BarribeauJ. VillingerB. Waldman2008Major histocompatibility complex based resistance to a common bacterial pathogen of amphibians.PLoS One3e2692
- 64. Del Pozo JL, Garcia-Quetglas E, Hernaez S, Serrera A, Alonso M, et al. (2008) Granulicatella adiacens breast implant-associated infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61: 58–60.JL Del PozoE. Garcia-QuetglasS. HernaezA. SerreraM. Alonso2008Granulicatella adiacens breast implant-associated infection.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis615860
- 65. Denton M, Kerr KG (1998) Microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 57–80.M. DentonKG Kerr1998Microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.Clin Microbiol Rev115780
- 66. Rumbaugh KP, Griswold JA, Hamood AN (1999) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains obtained from patients with tracheal, urinary tract and wound infection: variations in virulence factors and virulence genes. Journal of Hospital Infection 43: 211–218.KP RumbaughJA GriswoldAN Hamood1999Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains obtained from patients with tracheal, urinary tract and wound infection: variations in virulence factors and virulence genes.Journal of Hospital Infection43211218
- 67. Lalucat J, Bennasar A, Bosch R, Garcia-Valdes E, Palleroni NJ (2006) Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70: 510–547.J. LalucatA. BennasarR. BoschE. Garcia-ValdesNJ Palleroni2006Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri.Microbiol Mol Biol Rev70510547
- 68. Valenstein P, Bardy GH, Cox CC, Zwadyk P (1983) Pseudomonas alcaligenes endocarditis. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 79: 245–247.P. ValensteinGH BardyCC CoxP. Zwadyk1983Pseudomonas alcaligenes endocarditis.American Journal of Clinical Pathology79245247
- 69. De Lucca A (2007) Harmful fungi in both agriculture and medicine. Revista Iberoamericana Micrologia 24: 3–13.A. De Lucca2007Harmful fungi in both agriculture and medicine.Revista Iberoamericana Micrologia24313
- 70. Gonçalves A, Santos IM, Paterson RR, Lima N (2006) FISH and Calcofluor staining techniques to detect in situ filamentous fungal biofilms in water. Revista Iberoamericana Micrologia 23: 194–198.A. GonçalvesIM SantosRR PatersonN. Lima2006FISH and Calcofluor staining techniques to detect in situ filamentous fungal biofilms in water.Revista Iberoamericana Micrologia23194198
- 71. Suihko M-L, Alakomi H-L, Gorbushina A, Fortune I, Marquardt J, et al. (2007) Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 30: 494–508.M-L SuihkoH-L AlakomiA. GorbushinaI. FortuneJ. Marquardt2007Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments.Systematic and Applied Microbiology30494508
- 72. Sun Y, Chandra J, Mukherjee P, Szczotka-Flynn L, Ghannoum MA, et al. (2009) A murine model of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51: 1511–1516.Y. SunJ. ChandraP. MukherjeeL. Szczotka-FlynnMA Ghannoum2009A murine model of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci5115111516
- 73. Burmølle M, Webb JS, Rao D, Hansen LH, Sorensen SJ, et al. (2006) Enhanced biofilm formation and increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and bacterial invasion are caused by synergistic interactions in multispecies biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 3916–3923.M. BurmølleJS WebbD. RaoLH HansenSJ Sorensen2006Enhanced biofilm formation and increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and bacterial invasion are caused by synergistic interactions in multispecies biofilms.Appl Environ Microbiol7239163923
- 74. Kimber KR, Kollias GV (2000) Infectious and parasitic diseases and contaminant-related problems of North American river otter (Lontra canadensis): a review. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31: 452–472.KR KimberGV Kollias2000Infectious and parasitic diseases and contaminant-related problems of North American river otter (Lontra canadensis): a review.Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine31452472
- 75. Low J (1996) Problems provide measure of otter program's success.J. Low1996Problems provide measure of otter program's success.Missouri Department of Conservation, Available: http://www.mdc.state.mo.us/news/out/1996/out04196.html#problems%20provide. Accessed 2004 October 20. Missouri Department of Conservation, Available: http://www.mdc.state.mo.us/news/out/1996/out04196.html#problems%20provide. Accessed 2004 October 20.
- 76. Missouri Department of Conservation Trout Plan Committee (2003) A plan for Missouri trout fishing. Jefferson City: Missouri Department of Conservation. 34 p.Missouri Department of Conservation Trout Plan Committee2003A plan for Missouri trout fishingJefferson CityMissouri Department of Conservation34
- 77. Scadding SR (1977) Phylogenic distribution of limb regeneration capacity in adult amphibia. Journal of Experimental Zoology 202: 57–67.SR Scadding1977Phylogenic distribution of limb regeneration capacity in adult amphibia.Journal of Experimental Zoology2025767
- 78. Schauble MK (1972) Seasonal variation of newt forelimb regeneration under controlled environmental conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology 181: 281–286.MK Schauble1972Seasonal variation of newt forelimb regeneration under controlled environmental conditions.Journal of Experimental Zoology181281286
- 79. Young HE, Bailey CF, Dalley BK (1983) Environmental conditions prerequisite for complete limb regeneration in the postmetamorphic adult land-phase salamander, Ambystoma. Anat Rec 206: 289–294.HE YoungCF BaileyBK Dalley1983Environmental conditions prerequisite for complete limb regeneration in the postmetamorphic adult land-phase salamander, Ambystoma.Anat Rec206289294
- 80. Solis ME, Liu CC, Nam P, Niyogi DK, Bandeff JM, et al. (2007) Occurrence of organic chemicals in two rivers inhabited by Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53: 426–434.ME SolisCC LiuP. NamDK NiyogiJM Bandeff2007Occurrence of organic chemicals in two rivers inhabited by Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi).Arch Environ Contam Toxicol53426434
- 81. Quinlan EL, Phlips EJ (2007) Preliminary investigation of periphyton in the North Fork branch of the White River, Missouri. 7 p.EL QuinlanEJ Phlips2007Preliminary investigation of periphyton in the North Fork branch of the White River, Missouri.St. Louis Zoological Park and the Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps Report. 7 St. Louis Zoological Park and the Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps Report.
- 82. Solis ME, Bandeff JM, Huang Y-W (2007) Hematology and serum chemistry of Ozark and eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetologica 63: 285–292.ME SolisJM BandeffY-W Huang2007Hematology and serum chemistry of Ozark and eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).Herpetologica63285292
- 83. Communicable Disease Center: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Harmful algal blooms. Communicable Disease Center: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2011Harmful algal blooms.Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hab/cyanobacteria/facts.htm#cynolabs. Accessed 2001 May 13. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hab/cyanobacteria/facts.htm#cynolabs. Accessed 2001 May 13.
- 84. Cattaneo A (1987) Periphyton in lakes of different trophy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 296–303.A. Cattaneo1987Periphyton in lakes of different trophy.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences44296303
- 85. Chetelat J, Pick FR, Morin A, Hamilton PB (1999) Periphyton biomass and community composition in rivers of different nutrient status. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56: 560–569.J. ChetelatFR PickA. MorinPB Hamilton1999Periphyton biomass and community composition in rivers of different nutrient status.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences56560569
- 86. Caramujo M-J, Mendes C, Cartaxana P, Brotas V, Boavida M-J (2008) Influence of drought on algal biofilms and meiofaunal assemblages of temperate reservoirs and rivers. Hydrobiologia 598: 77–94.M-J CaramujoC. MendesP. CartaxanaV. BrotasM-J Boavida2008Influence of drought on algal biofilms and meiofaunal assemblages of temperate reservoirs and rivers.Hydrobiologia5987794
- 87. Englebert ET, McDermott C, Kleinheinz GT (2008) Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin. Science of The Total Environment 404: 10–17.ET EnglebertC. McDermottGT Kleinheinz2008Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin.Science of The Total Environment4041017
- 88. Whitman RL, Shively DA, Pawlik H, Nevers MB, Byappanahalli MN (2003) Occurrence of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in nearshore water and beach sand of Lake Michigan. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 4714–4719.RL WhitmanDA ShivelyH. PawlikMB NeversMN Byappanahalli2003Occurrence of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in nearshore water and beach sand of Lake Michigan.Appl Environ Microbiol6947144719
- 89. Pitt AL, Nickerson MA, Tavano JJ (2008) Coliform bacterial content of the North Fork of White River, Ozark County, Missouri. 12 p.AL PittMA NickersonJJ Tavano2008Coliform bacterial content of the North Fork of White River, Ozark County, Missouri.St. Louis Zoological Gardens and Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps Report. 12 St. Louis Zoological Gardens and Reptile and Amphibian Conservation Corps Report.
- 90. Castro VA, Trasher AN, Healy M, Ott CM, Pierson DL (2004) Microbial characterization during the early habitation of the International Space Station. Microbial Ecology 47: 119–126.VA CastroAN TrasherM. HealyCM OttDL Pierson2004Microbial characterization during the early habitation of the International Space Station.Microbial Ecology47119126