This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing.
Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials.
(1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity.
Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.
Citation: Mignardot J-B, Olivier I, Promayon E, Nougier V (2010) Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014387
Editor: Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Denmark
Received: July 23, 2010; Accepted: December 1, 2010; Published: December 20, 2010
Copyright: © 2010 Mignardot et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: Doctoral grant from the French ministry of education. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Many studies investigated postural control in different pathological or aging populations in order to optimize programs for prevention and/or rehabilitation of postural disorders. However, regarding obesity, the literature studying the impact of this disease on postural control remains scarce. Obesity is a major scourge in developed countries in which its prevalence increased severely in the past two decades –.
Besides its negative impact on a large number of physiological functions, it facilitates the development of associated pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, heart failure, respiratory failure, cholelithiasis, osteoarticular disease, and several cancers , . In addition, some recent studies highlighted the effects of this disease on the musculoskeletal system , , or motor skills and balance –. These studies generally reported in obese patients an increase of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) oscillations during maintained bipedal stance and a slower walking speed.
The ability to control postural balance and an erect posture requires complex sensory-motor and cognitive processes . However, to our knowledge no study has focused on quantifying the attentional cost of maintaining a given posture in obese patients. How attentional resources are allocated is however an important indication to assess the degree of postural control. For example, adding to the control of posture a second cognitive task such as a verbal or motor reaction time to auditory or visual stimuli (RT) allows quantifying the allocation of attention necessary for the control of this posture. For example, whereas in adult healthy subjects small or no attentional costs are generally observed for controlling posture,  have shown that the attentional cost involved in postural control increases with ageing. Indeed, many studies showed, in a dual-task condition, an increased RT in elderly subjects as compared to young ones – or among elderly people between a single reference posture (e.g., sitting) and a more complex erected posture , ,  or between the dual and single phases of support during walking . According to Lajoie et al. (1993) , a higher attentional demand is required when sensory information is altered or reduced, or when complexity of the postural task increases. In a dual-task condition, an increased RT can thus be considered as a marker of an increased postural task difficulty , , . Indeed, some authors have even established a positive correlation between RT increase and the increased risk of falls among elderly , . On the basis of these various studies in elderly people, similar results could be expected in obese patients.
Whereas for normal aging or for some pathology such as spinal cord injury  or stroke patients  many studies investigated the allocation of attentional resources during postural or motor tasks, this question does not seem to have been investigated for the obese population. This is why we aimed at evaluating the impact of obesity on the attentional cost required for maintaining two different postures (seating and unipedal standing). Contradictions in the literature regarding bipedal stability in obese patients suggested that this posture is not complex enough to reach clear conclusions , . In day life situations, equilibrium disturbances generally occur in a more complex biomechanical and cognitive context , especially during postural transitions (from bipedal to unipedal posture and vice-versa) as for example during gait in which the swinging phase of one foot requires a fine control of the projection of the centre of gravity in the reduced base of support of the supporting foot. Unipedal posture seems to be a good compromise: Given the significant reduction of the bearing surface, it increases the difficulty of maintaining a stable posture and allows a parallel evaluation of CoP oscillations.
The goal of the present study was to quantify postural stability in non obese and obese patients and the attentional cost required to maintain balance in more or less complex postural tasks. In a dual-task paradigm, combination of centre of foot pressure (CoP) analysis and RT data in non obese and obese patients should allow evaluating patients' postural control in relation to the risk of falling. Estimating the contribution of the attentional resources allocated to the central processes involved in postural control should allow a better understanding of the origin of postural disturbances in obese patients in order to optimise the therapeutic intervention for stopping the obesity deconditioning process .
“Comité de Protection des Personnes”, zone Sud Est V, France, Joseph Fourier University and Clinical Trials (NCT01106105) has specially approved this study.
Ten healthy non-obese adults (five women and five men; mean age = 42.4±15.1 and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) = 22.4±1.3) and ten obese adults (five women and five men; mean age = 46.2±19.6 and mean BMI = 35.2±2.8; F(1,18) = 0.3, p>0.05, and 176.3, p<0.001, for control vs. obese age and BMI, respectively) voluntarily took part in this investigation.
All participants underwent a complete medical examination and only individuals free from known muscular, neurological or cardiovascular deficits took part in the study. Only those individuals taking part in recreational, non competitive, physical activities at a frequency of no more than twice a week were admitted to the study. Written informed consent was obtained, and all experimental procedures conformed to the standards set by the Declaration of Helsinki and Huriet law, were approved by the local ethics committee on human research, and were supported by the French research ministery.
Participants were asked to stay as immobile as possible for 20 sec on a force platform. They fixated a white cross (20×20 cm) located 3 m away from the force platform, at eyes level. Participants were instructed to keep their body straight and their arms loosely hanging by their sides. Two postural conditions were investigated. In the first condition (Seated), participants seated on the force platform so that 2/3 of the proximal thighs length touched the force platform with the arms crossed on the top of the tights. In the second postural condition (Unipedal), participants stood on the force platform with their preferred foot; the other foot was lifted so that it had no contact with the support surface.
Reaction time task
An additional auditory reaction time task (RT) was performed on some trials. Participants were instructed to respond as fast as possible to the auditory stimulus by a finger pressure exerted on a contactor. Over a 20 sec trial, 10 auditory stimuli (sound frequency was 1000 Hz) were randomly presented through a loudspeaker located 1 m away from the ear canal. In order to prevent anticipation, two successive stimuli were separated by a random interval of 0.8 to 2 sec by steps of 0.2 sec. In the dual task context, no instruction was given regarding the priority dedicated to the postural and RT tasks.
Participant performed two experimental conditions. In the single task condition, participants performed the postural task alone. In the dual–task condition, participants performed the postural task together with the RT task. Four trials for each posture and each single and dual-task condition were performed for a total of 16 trials. The order of presentation of the trials was randomized across participants. A one min rest separated blocks of four successive trials
Signals from the force platform (AMTI model OR 6–7) were sampled at 100 Hz (12-bit A/D conversion) and low pass filtered with a second-order Butterworth (10 Hz). Displacement of the CoP was then assessed by computation of the three orthogonal components of the ground reaction forces and their associated torque. Two dependent variables were used to describe participants' postural behaviour. The range of CoP displacements indicated the maximal excursion of the CoP in any direction. It is a global measure that allows estimating overall postural performance (i.e., stability). The speed of CoP displacements was the sum of the displacement scalars (i.e., the cumulated distance over the sampling period) divided by the sampling time. This measure has been suggested to represent the amount of activity required to maintain stability, providing a more functional approach of postural control . To nullify the effect of the anthropometric factors on the inverse pendulum model of postural control , all postural data were normalised with respect to body height. Analysis of postural data was performed on trials without a consecutive fall. However, for the obese patients, maintaining an unipedal posture for more than 5 sec was a real challenge. Considering these functional difficulties, we decided to take into consideration all trials exceeding 10 sec of duration without equilibrium loss. It must be emphasised that decreasing the collection time from 20 to 10 sec did not affect the data analysis since CoP range was a displacement data time independent and CoP speed was normalised with respect to the duration of a trial.
All data are reported as mean values ± standard deviation. Two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were applied to the dependent variables, depending on the conditions, to investigate differences between groups and / or conditions. Post hoc analyses were assessed using the HSD Tukey test whenever necessary. The software package Statistica (Statsoft, version 6.0, Statistica, Tulsa, OK) was used for all analyses.
In the unipedal postural condition for the obese patients, 7.3 trials±1.8 in average were necessary for validating 4 good trials, which meant a rate of success of 59%±20. In the same postural condition, control participants exhibited a 100% rate of success.
Analysis of CoP showed significant main effects of group [F(1,18) = 16.44 and 22.45, ps<.001, for speed and range, respectively] and posture [F(3,54) = 99.84 and 249.52, ps<.001, for speed and range, respectively]. As illustrated in figure 2, results also showed a significant interaction of group×posture [F(3,54) = 15.8 and 10.9, ps<.001, for speed and range, respectively]. The decomposition of the interaction into its simple main effects showed that in the seated position whatever the simple or dual-task condition, control and obese CoP displacement was similar (figure 2). In the unipedal posture, however, CoP speed and range increased much more in obese patients than in control participants whatever the single or dual-task condition (obese CoP speed increased about 120.93% and 99.32% (figure 2a) and range increased about 46.12% and 60.93% (figure 2b) in the single and dual-task conditions, respectively).
Analysis of RT, showed main effects of group [F(1,18) = 12.18, p<.01] and posture [F(1,18) = 10.59, p<.01], and a significant interaction of group×posture [F(1,18) = 4.97, p<0.05].
The decomposition of the interaction into its simple main effects showed that for the control participants, RT remained similar whatever the postural complexity whereas it severely increased for the obese patients in the unipedal stance.
Many studies assessing attentional cost while maintaining static or dynamic postures were used as a base of reference for postural control , , , , . Generally, the postural context is a simple motor task in which the attentional cost required to maintain equilibrium is rather low as compared to many day life sensori-motor situations such as walking, grasping an object on the ground, or moving from a sitting to standing position. When seated in the present experiment, no effect of group on CoP sway or RT were observed (figures 2 and 3 and table 1). This postural condition may be considered as a reference situation in which, whatever the BMI, postural and attentional data are similar.
In the unipedal position, the biomechanical configuration (the “centre of mass height/base of support” ratio is clearly higher than the one observed in a seated posture) placed participants in a vulnerable situation in which personal integrity was clearly at risk. As a result, CoP sway (i.e., range and speed) was obviously greater for the controls and obese patients in contrast to the sitting condition. The increase of CoP range reflected the existence of sudden and severe displacements of the CoP towards the limits of the base of support (figure 1b). Similarly, the increase of CoP speed reflected the quantity of activity necessary for controlling posture and could be interpreted as a deficit of postural control. These increases were larger for the obese patients than for the control group suggesting that for the control group, postural CoP oscillations were relatively limited and maximal CoP excursions remained at distance of the base of support borderline in comparison to the obese patients. For the obese patients, however, the biomechanical constraints imposed to counteract a same postural disruption and to return to an average CoP position required to generate a muscular torque which magnitude must be higher and/or generated faster than in non-obese subjects .
Illustration of CoP displacement on the AP and ML axes in the single and dual-task conditions in the seated and unipedal postures for a non obese and obese patient (b). Auditory stimulus representation and motor response via the contactor. At each stimulus was associated a RT defined as the time difference between the signal peak of stimulation and the motor response (c).
More specifically, similar CoP oscillations in the simple and dual-tasks conditions were observed for both groups (figure 2, table 1). However, whereas control participants were able to maintain a similar RT performance whatever the postural complexity in the dual-tasks condition, obese patients exhibited much longer RTs (RT increased by over 33% in average) in the unipedal stance as compared to the baseline sitting condition (figure 3, table 1). In other words, for the healthy participants, maintaining a unipedal posture did not seem to require a greater amount of attentional resources suggesting that the neural processes for preserving this erect posture can be regarded as rather automatic. Conversely, for the obese patients, the increased RT observed in the same postural condition reflected a higher attentional cost for controlling the unipedal stance because controlling this complex posture probably required a supra-spinal process. In other words, when it was necessary to control online their posture (as it was the case in the unipedal condition), obese patients exhibited some difficulties. Similar interpretations have been proposed in studies investigating postural control in elderly people , , .
The exclusive focus of attention on postural stability generally results in larger CoP displacements in a situation in which subjects do not need to focus voluntarily on postural stability . Only in situations in which the additional cognitive task is truly complex, postural sway increases . These observations were generally made while maintaining a bipedal stance. However, this postural task does not seem complex enough to induce a risk of falling. In the present experiment, no instructions were given to participants regarding the priority dedicated to one or the other task. In obese patients, the absence of postural difference between the single- and dual-tasks conditions and the concomitant RT increase during unipedal stance highlighted the priority these obese patients dedicated to postural control. In the unipedal single-task condition, obese patients were already experiencing critical values of CoP displacement. If the obese patients reduced the attention dedicated to the control of posture during the dual-tasks condition, they would probably fall. Thus, the obese patients preferred to decrease their performance in what they considered to be the so-called “secondary” task (increased RT to auditory stimuli), which did not affect their physical integrity. However, in everyday life there are many situations in which we need to manage different attentional tasks together with balance and/or locomotion. The present results clearly suggested that obese patients are not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do.
From a neurophysiological point of view, we hypothesized that skin stretching resulting from obesity may increase the distance between the cutaneous mechanoreceptors and may thus decrease the discrimination threshold of somato-sensory perception. Additionally, a recent study  showed that proprioception at knee joint is already altered with this pathology in young obese patients aged 7 to 12. Body schema is built on the basis of multisensory inputs including cutaneous and proprioceptive receptors. With obesity, these receptors may provide altered information to the somato-sensory cortical area altering in turn the obese patients' body schema representation. In addition, it has been shown that the limited physical activity, as generally reported in obese patients, also contributed to the alteration of the body schema –. To develop muscular responses adapted to the postural constraints, the internal model for action must be based on an appropriate body schema . Therefore, we believe that obesity altered the subjects' body schema and internal models necessary for postural control, especially in complex postural tasks.
Plasticity of the neuro-muscular system and appropriate internal models may allow better adapting the neurophysiological constraints to this pathology to answer clinical problems such as balance disorders. Some authors highlighted the benefits of weight loss on postural control improvement –. Associated to weight loss, a rehabilitation program could be optimized by combining physical practice (Strength training, daily living activities, balance training –), motor cognitive training (mentally simulated motor action – or virtual reality ) and learning to better use the sensory information available (e.g., visual anchoring ). Combining these ways of rehabilitation could act synergistically to improve postural control in obese patients.
We thank Stéphanie Schmitt (dietetician), MD Philippe Pichon of the “Health Center of Arlequin”, Noemie Devincre and Lucien Pilloni for their technical assistance.
Conceived and designed the experiments: JBM IO EP VN. Performed the experiments: JBM. Analyzed the data: JBM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JBM IO EP VN. Wrote the paper: JBM IO EP VN.
- 1. Bassett DR, Pucher J, Buehler R, Thompson DL, Crouter SE (2008) Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 5: 795–714.
- 2. International Association for the Study of ObesityAdult overweight and obesity in European Union (EU 27). http://www.iotf.org/database/index.asp. Accessed February 12, 2007.
- 3. International Obesity TaskForce Obesity in Europe - 3 March 2005.
- 4. Basdevant A (2008) Obesity. Pathophysiological concepts. Joint Bone Spine 75: 665–666.
- 5. Bray GA (2004) Medical Consequences of Obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89: 2583–2589.
- 6. Maffiuletti NA, Jubeau M, M, Munzinger U, Bizzini M, Agosti F, et al. (2007) Differences in quadriceps muscle strength and fatigue between lean and obese subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 101: 51–59.
- 7. Corbeil P, Simoneau M, Rancourt D, Tremblay A, Teasdale N (2001) Increased risk for falling associated with obesity: mathematical modeling of postural control. IEEE Transac Neural Systems Rehab Eng 9: 126–136.
- 8. Greve J, Alonso A, Carolina , Bordini ACPG, Camanho GL (2007) Correlation between body mass index and postural balance. Clinics 62: 717–720.
- 9. Hue O, Simoneau M, Marcotte J, Berrigan F, Dore J, et al. (2007) Body weight is a strong predictor of postural stability. Gait Posture 26: 32–38.
- 10. Berrigan F, Simoneau M, Tremblay A, Hue O, Teasdale N (2006) Influence of obesity on accurate and rapid arm movement performed from a standing posture. Int J Obesity 30: 1750–1757.
- 11. McGraw B, McClenaghan BA, Williams HG, Dickerson J, Ward DS (2000) Gait and Postural Stability in Obese and Nonobese Prepubertal Boys. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81: 484–489.
- 12. Brown LA, Sleik RJ, Winder TR (2002) Attentional demands for static postural control after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83: 1732–1735.
- 13. Mahboobina A, Loughlin PJ, Redfern MS (2007) A model-based approach to attention and sensory integration in postural control of older adults. Neuroscience Letters 429: 147–151.
- 14. Tucker MG, Kavanagh JJ, Barrett RS, Morrison S (2008) Age-related differences in postural reaction time and coordination during voluntary sway movements. Human Movement Science 27: 728–737.
- 15. Gage WH, Sleik RJ, Polych MA, McKenzie NC, Brown LA (2003) The allocation of attention during locomotion is altered by anxiety. Exp Brain Res 150: 385–394.
- 16. Teasdale N, Simoneau M (2001) Attentional demands for postural control: the effects of aging and sensory reintegration. Gait and Posture 14: 203–210.
- 17. Marsh AP, Geel SE (2000) The effect of age on the attentional demands of postural control. Gait and Posture 12: 105–113.
- 18. Lajoie Y, Gallagher SP (2004) Predicting falls within the elderly community: comparison of postural sway, reaction time, the Berg balance scale and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale for comparing fallers and non-fallers. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 38: 11–26.
- 19. Lajoie Y, Teasdale N, Bard C, Fleury M (1996) Upright standing and gait: are there changes in attentional requirements related to normal aging? Exp Aging Res 22: 185–198.
- 20. Lajoie Y, Teasdale N, Bard C, Fleury M (1993) Attentional demands for static and dynamic equilibrium. Exp Brain Res 97: 139–144.
- 21. Tucker MG, Kavanagh JJ, Morrison S, Barrett RS (2009) Voluntary sway and rapid orthogonal transitions of voluntary sway in young adults, and low and high fall-risk older adults. Clinical Biomechanics 24: 597–605.
- 22. Lajoie Y, Barbeau H, Hamelin M (1999) Attentional requirements of walking in spinal cord injured patients compared to normal subjects. Spinal Cord 37: 245–250.
- 23. Blaszczyk JW, Cieslinska-Swider J, Plewa M, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Markiewicz A (2009) Effects of excessive body weight on postural control. J Biomech 42: 1295–1300.
- 24. Handrigan GA, Corbeil P, Simoneau M, Teasdale N (2009) Letter to the Editor. Balance control is altered in obese individuals. J Biomech 43: 383–384.
- 25. Close JCT, Lord Lord S, Menz HB, Sherrington C (2005) What is the role of falls? Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 19: 913–935.
- 26. Pietiläinen KH, Kaprio J, Borg P, Plasqui G, Yki-Järvinen H, et al. (2008) Physical Inactivity and Obesity: A Vicious Circle. Obesity 16: 409–414.
- 27. Maki BR, Holliday PJ, Fernie GR (1990) Aging and postural control. A comparison of spontaneous- and induced-sway balance tests. J Am Geriatr Soc 38: 1–9.
- 28. Morasso PG, Spada G, Capra R (1999) Computing the COM from the COP in postural sway movements. Human Movement Science 18: 759–767.
- 29. van Dieën JH, Koppes LLJ, Twisk JWR (2010) Postural sway parameters in seated balancing; their reliability and relationship with balancing performance. Gait & Posture 31: 42–46.
- 30. Vuillerme N, Isableu B, Nougier V (2006) Attentional demands associated with the use of a light fingertip touch for postural control during quiet standing. Exp Brain Res 169: 232–236.
- 31. Clarkson PM (1978) The effect of age and activity level on simple and choice fractionated response time. Eur J Appl Physiol 40: 17–25.
- 32. Olivier I, Palluel E, Nougier V (2008) Effects of attentional focus on postural sway in children and adults. Exp Brain Res 185: 341–345.
- 33. Olivier I, Cuisinier R, Vaugoyeau M, Nougier V, Assaiante C (2007) Dual-task study of cognitive and postural interference in 7-year-olds and adults. Neuroreport 18: 817–821.
- 34. Wang L, Li X, Xu DQ, Hong YL (2008) Proprioception of ankle and knee joints in obese boys and nonobese boys. Med Sci Monit 14: 129–135.
- 35. Williams HG, Pfeiffer KA, O'Neill JR, Dowda M, McIver KL, et al. (2008) Motor Skill Performance and Physical Activityin Preschool Children. Obesity 16: 1421–1426.
- 36. Cliff DP, Okely AD, Morgan PJ, Steele JR, Jones RA, et al. (2010) Movement Skills and Physical Activity in Obese Children: Randomized Controlled Trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc. in press.
- 37. Morasso PG, Baratto L, Capra R, Spada G (1999) Internal model in the control of posture. Neutral Netw 12: 1173–1180.
- 38. Teasdale N, Hue O, Marcotte J, Berrigan F, Simoneau M, et al. (2007) Reducing weight increases postural stability in obese and morbid obese men. Int J Obesity 31: 153–160.
- 39. Maffiuletti NA, Agosti F, Proietti M, Riva D, Resnik M, et al. (2005) Postural instability of extremely obese individuals improves after a body weight reduction program entailing specific balance training. J Endocrinol Invest 28: 2–7.
- 40. Sartorio A, Lafortuna CL, Conte G, Faglia G, Narici MV (2001) Changes in motor control and muscle performance after a short-term body mass reduction program in obese subjects. J Endocrinol Invest 24: 393–398.
- 41. Saimpont A, Mourey F, Manckoundia P, Pfitzenmeyer P, Pozzo T (2010) Aging affects the mental simulation/planning of the “rising from the floor” sequence. Archive of Gerontolgy and Geriatrics 51: 41–45.
- 42. Personnier P, Kubicki A, Laroche D, Papaxanthis C (2010) Temporal features of imagined locomotion in normal aging. Neurosciences Letters 476: 146–149.
- 43. Bisson E, Contant B, Sveistrup H, Lajoie Y (2007) Functional balance and dual-task reaction times in older adults are improved by virtual reality and biofeedback training. Cyberpsychology & Behavior 10: 16–23.
- 44. Simoneau M, Teasdale N, Bourdin C, Bard C, Fleury M, et al. (1999) Aging and postural control: postural perturbations caused by changing the visual anchor. J Am Geriatr Soc 47: 235–240.