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Upper thermal limits differ among and within component species in a tritrophic host-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid system

Fig 3

Maximum daily air temperatures recorded near the study site in the past 124 years compared with the average critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of component H-P-HP species measured in this study.

Dashed lines: a = CTmax of host caterpillar, b = CTmax of parasitoid wasp, c = CTmax of hyperparasitoid wasp.

Fig 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198803.g003