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Convergent evolution of a mobile bony tongue in flighted dinosaurs and pterosaurs

Fig 12

Episterno-hyoid and M. coracohyoideus muscle in Alligator and proposed homologous muscles in birds.

(A)(B)Alligator mississippiensis (TMM M-12053), (C)(D)the homologous M. sternotrachealis in Aythya americana (TMM M-12682). (E)(F) show the M. tracheolateralis in Aythya americana (USNM 643741) and Rhea americana (USNM 615363) respectively; (G)(H)(I) show M. cricohyoideus in Nothura machulosa (USNM 631210), Megapodius pritchardii (USNM 319640) and Aythya americana (USNM 643741) respectively Abbreviations: ephc, episterno-hyoid complex; mch, M. cricohyoideus; mclh, M. cleidohyoideus; mtl, M. tracheolateralis, and mstt, M. sternotrachealis.

Fig 12

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198078.g012