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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

Table 3

Studies published from 1900–2016 examining the potential transmission of pathogens from managed to wild bees.

For all studies, we recorded the species of managed and wild bees, and indicated whether managed bees were native or exotic to the study region, the location (continent and country) and context of the study including field (natural, semi-natural, developed, agricultural, or experimental plot), lab, or greenhouse, and all variables measured, including the managed bee metric (independent variable), wild bee metric (dependent variable), and any explanatory or mechanistic variables. The overall effect of managed bees on wild bees via pathogens, as reported by the study, is also recorded and noted as positive (+), neutral (0), negative (-), or mixed.

Table 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189268.t003