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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

Fig 7

Reviewed effects of managed bees on wild bees through transmission of pathogens.

Variables reported by studies examining the effects of managed bees on wild bees through pathogens including (A) managed bee metric (independent variable), (B) potential mechanisms (explanatory variable), and (C) wild bee responses (dependent variable).

Fig 7

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189268.g007