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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

Fig 4

Reviewed effects of managed bees on wild bees through competition for shared resources.

Variables reported by studies examining the competitive effects of managed bees on wild bees including (A) managed bee metrics (independent variables), (B) potential mechanisms (explanatory variables), and (C) wild bee responses (dependent variables).

Fig 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189268.g004