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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

Fig 3

Publication trends.

The total number of published studies over time from 1900–2016 that examined the effects of managed bees on wild bees via three reviewed mechanisms: competition for resources, changes in plant communities (specifically native and exotic plant populations), and transmission of pathogens. While the literature search began in 1900, the first publication within these topical areas did not occur until 1964.

Fig 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189268.g003