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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

Fig 1

Hypothesized interactions between managed bees and wild bees.

Wild and managed bees may interact indirectly (dashed lines) through either bottom-up effects on shared resources (including pollen, nectar, and nesting sites), or by altering top-down interactions through shared antagonists such as pathogenic organisms.

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189268.g001