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Flying foxes create extensive seed shadows and enhance germination success of pioneer plant species in deforested Madagascan landscapes

Fig 5

Seed shadow plot from one feeding event.

Sample trajectory with one single feeding event (12 hours: 18.00h-06.00h). The spatio-temporal data (GPS fixes in blue) have been plotted at the same resolutions as recorded. The start and end points of the trajectory have been marked (the roost at 0,0 km) as well as the first and subsequent defecation event horizons. Notice that the two circles are not concentric. Concentric circles would appear only if the individual would have returned at time T2 at the same location where it was estimated to be at time T1.

Fig 5

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184023.g005