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Flying foxes create extensive seed shadows and enhance germination success of pioneer plant species in deforested Madagascan landscapes

Fig 3

Gut retention times of Madagascan flying foxes.

Seed retention time in four colour coded individual bats. The vertical axis represents number of fig seeds present in the faeces, the maximum of 25 refers to a score of ‘25 and over’. The horizontal axis represents time since the last feeding of a bat (seed ingestion). Measurements were made every 30 mins for up to 6 h after food was presented (after this time droppings were produced rarely). The bats produced 63 droppings in total.

Fig 3