Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs
Black arrows represent energy transfers or losses. The prey has a trophic level τ and the predator has a trophic level (τ+1). Fishing mortality F and natural mortality M0 represent non-predation mortalities. Excretion U and respiration R are the predator metabolic losses. The partial transfer efficiency (Pτ+1/Qτ+1) and total transfer efficiency (Pτ+1/Pτ) are indicated (derived from Gascuel et al.,).