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Sexual dimorphism in African elephant social rumbles

Fig 1

Comparison of a female (left, Chikwenya) and a male (right, Mike) African elephant.

The spectrogram and power spectra below the photograph provide an example of a social rumble of each sex, indicating formant positions (rumbles uttered first by Chikwenya, followed by Mike).

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177411.g001