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Savanna elephant numbers are only a quarter of their expected values

Fig 3

Most recent density estimates as a percentage of predicted ecological benchmark densities for savanna elephant populations across 73 protected areas indicate most populations are far from ecological benchmarks.

(A) Fill color illustrates most recent density estimates as a percentage of predicted ecological benchmark density as indicated in (B) the frequency distribution where percentages on the x-axis represent bin centers. (C) Populations plotted according to the same color scheme show that while few populations are near their predicted ecological benchmark (indicated by the solid 1:1 line), recent density estimates increased with predicted ecological benchmark density (dashed line: y = 0.31x-0.12, F1,71 = 16.38, p<0.001, R2 = 0.19).

Fig 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175942.g003