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Savanna elephant numbers are only a quarter of their expected values

Fig 1

A GAM explains extracted stable densities from time series of 18 savanna elephant populations.

The component smooth functions of mean EVI, percentage of protected area within 12km of water, and PIKE of the selected best GAM are represented by solid lines transformed to the response scale of density (elephants/km2). Points represent partial residuals of the 18 extracted densities, and grey lines represent 1,000 iterations to account for uncertainty.

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175942.g001