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AMPK modulatory activity of olive–tree leaves phenolic compounds: Bioassay-guided isolation on adipocyte model and in silico approach

Fig 4

Modulation of AMPK expression and/or activity by Olive-tree leaves fractions.

Measurement of the total AMPK expression levels (A) and the activation/inhibition rate (%), measured as the ratio pAMPK/AMPK (B) of the selected olive-tree leaves extract fractions in 3T3-L1 hypertrophic adipocytes. The modulatory effects on the AMPK expression levels and the effects on the pAMPK/AMPK ratio were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy at a concentration of 400 μg/mL in cells incubated in high glucose medium. Values are normalized with respect to the high glucose control. With comparative aims, the positive control 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) was also included. *, **, and *** indicate significant differences with respect to the control incubated in high glucose medium (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001, respectively).

Fig 4