AMPK modulatory activity of olive–tree leaves phenolic compounds: Bioassay-guided isolation on adipocyte model and in silico approach
Measurement of the total AMPK expression levels (A) and the activation/inhibition rate (%), measured as the ratio pAMPK/AMPK, (B) Immunofluorescence microscopy of hypertrophic adipocytes treated with 400, 600, and 800 μg/mL of the olive-tree leaves extract and incubated in high glucose medium. Values were normalized with respect to the high glucose control. With comparative aims, the positive control 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) has also been included. *p<0.05 indicates significant differences compared to the control incubated in high glucose medium. Representative microphotographs taken with a fluorescence microscope at 20x: control cells incubated in high glucose medium (total AMPK, green fluorescence, C; pAMPK, red fluorescence, D; nuclei, blue fluorescence, E; superimposed image, I) vs. cells incubated with 800 μg/mL of olive-tree leaves extract (total AMPK, F; pAMPK, G; nuclei, H; superimposed image, J).