Mated Drosophila melanogaster females consume more amino acids during the dark phase
(A) Diagram of two-choice preference tests. The flies were kept on aa(-) medium for 2 days, and then offered a choice between glucose or amino acid mixture for 2 h (indicated as T) at each time point under LD cycles, DD, or LL (n = 3 or 4 in quintuple). Each light (L) phase is shown by a white box and each dark (D) phase by a gray box. (B and C) Feeding ratios (FRs) between glucose (red lines) and amino acids (blue lines) of CS (B) and per0 (C) flies are shown at four Zeitgeber (ZT) or circadian (CT) time points. p > 0.05 for all comparisons between feeding ratios across the four time points under LD, DD, and LL using one-way ANOVA. (D) Feeding ratios at ZT 0–2 and 6–8 in (B) and (C) were integrated as the feeding ratio in the L phase (orange bars). Feeding ratios at ZT 12–14 and 18–20 in (B) and (C) were integrated as a feeding ratio in the D phase (blue bars); filled bars represent CS flies; hatched bars represent per0 flies. p > 0.05 for all comparisons made between L and D phases using Student’s t-test. Error bars indicate SEM.