Large Scale Anthropogenic Reduction of Forest Cover in Last Glacial Maximum Europe
Difference in mean annual burned area fraction between LGM and the late PIH (AD 1770) in (A) the LPJ ensemble mean simulation without human burning, and in (B) the LPJ ensemble mean scenario including human burning. Panel (C) shows relative charcoal accumulation at the LGM and late PIH (AD 1650±200 yr) at the five Global Charcoal Database sites (D) containing lake and marine sediment microcharcoal dating to LGM . The Z-scores of transformed charcoal influx are calculated relative to the preindustrial Holocene base period (0.2–12 ka) following . At all charcoal sites the charcoal influx is smaller in samples dated to LGM compared to the PIH. The gray outline is the LGM coastline.