Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?
Calibration of resource use intensity and projection to 2100, for (a) final energy demand, and (b) material extractions. Circles represent H-D values for Tj (taken as Ij / GDP) plotted every three years, and solid coloured lines represent Tj modelled by Eq (5), calibrating rj and setting Tj,ult = 0.5Tj(2050). Around each solid line is a coloured band (most visible for (a) energy) representing the 95% confidence interval for rj. Dashed black lines represent modelled Tj when both rj and Tj,ult are calibrated.