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Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities

Fig 1

Schematic Social Networks of Towns and Cities.

(A) An unstructured network where anyone can in principle connect with anyone else, subject to limitations deriving from cost of movement. Such a network is characterized by increasing connectivity with city population size, with mean degree k(N) = k0 Nδ, δ ∼ 1/6. (B) A structured socioeconomic network. In this case, interactions between individuals are regulated by social groups and institutions (black squares) and may be damped by a factor s<1, for each level of institutions involved. If the parameter s<1, the net effect of institutions is to weaken social possibilities and thus reduce agglomeration effects, taking the exponent of the scaling of area with population for settlements closer to unity.

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162678.g001