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Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality

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Butter consumption and risk of any and total cardiovascular disease, stroke only and CHD only.

Data from 4 prospective cohorts with 175,612 participants and 9,783 cases for CVD, 3 cohorts of 173,853 participants and 5,299 events for stroke, and 3 studies of 149,056 participants and 4,484 cases of CHD. Within-study dose-response RRs were derived from reported linear effects or generalized least-squares trend estimation for studies reporting categories of intake, a pooled using both inverse-variance weighted random and fixed effects meta-analysis. CHD: Coronary Heart Disease; CVD: Cardiovascular Disease; D+L: DerSimonian and Laird random effects; I-V: Inverse-variance fixed effects; RR (95%CI): Relative Risk and 95% Confidence Interval.

Fig 3