Large-Scale and Comprehensive Immune Profiling and Functional Analysis of Normal Human Aging
Example of multivariate visualization using parallel coordinates (http://earlybird.cytoanalytics.com).
Results for the ten serum cytokines with highest variability are shown, with individuals colored by sex. Each analyte is displayed on its own vertical axis, with the axis range corresponding to the data range. Each line represents one person, and intersects each axis at the appropriate value (MFI) for that person. With the exception of PDGFββ, it is clear that the highest outliers are all females. By selectively highlighting the top individuals for IFNβ (bottom panel), it becomes apparent that many of these individuals are “serial outliers”, i.e., high for other cytokines as well. This implies a minority phenotype of females with multiple high serum cytokine levels.