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Bacteria Isolated from Bats Inhibit the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

Fig 1

Challenge plates showing the inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

Bacteria were plated with an initial starting concentration of 104 cfu/ml (PF2). The plate (a) shows no visible P. destructans growth on day 43, compared to the (b) control plate showing uninhibited P. destructans colony growth at day 43. (d) The zones of inhibition produced by one of the top performing P. fluorescens isolates (PF2) compared to the sham inoculated control (c) and a widely used strain of P. fluorescens, (e; PF7: PfA506). There are two distinct zones of inhibition produced by the top performing strain (as shown in panel d) indicated by the grey solid circle and the dashed grey circle. Microscopic images of the inner and outer zones are shown in panels (f) and (g). We used gram staining techniques to help better visualize conidia (purple) and hyphae (pink) (scale bars, 10 μm). Within the first zone, indicated by the dark ring surrounding the yellow bacteria colony (PF2), the bacteria either arrested or delayed conidia growth, (g) which can be seen by the small hyphael extension from the conidia. Outside of this first zone, the growth of P. destructans was much more extensive (f), producing a mycelial network before its growth was arrested.

Fig 1