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Parasite Prevalence Corresponds to Host Life History in a Diverse Assemblage of Afrotropical Birds and Haemosporidian Parasites

Fig 2

Predicted (least-squares mean) probabilities of parasitism and their 95% confidence intervals.

Expected rates of parasitism illustrated according to (a—c) host nest type, (d—f) host nest location, (g—h) host flocking behavior, and (i) habitat. For all panels, Plasmodium is represented by a black diamond and the letter “P”, Haemoproteus is represented by a black square and the letter “H”, and Leucocytozoon is represented by a black circle and the letter “L”. Number of individuals and species comprising each trait are listed below their respective traits (number of individuals above, number of species below in parentheses). Note that the parasitism rate of zero has been plotted for the aquatic habitat without confidence intervals; because the four individual aquatic-habitat birds sampled lack Leucocytozoon infections and therefore could not be used in the statistical analysis (as noted in the Methods section) Thus no measure of statistical confidence is associated with this aquatic habitat plotted point.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121254.g002