Integrated Analyses Resolve Conflicts over Squamate Reptile Phylogeny and Reveal Unexpected Placements for Fossil Taxa
Estimated phylogeny of squamate reptiles from likelihood analysis of combined morphological and molecular data, after removal of four “rogue” fossil taxa (-lnL = 979285.16; see S8 Fig. for tree including all taxa).
Red dots indicate clades with bootstrap values from 90–100%, black dots indicate values from 70–89% (values <70% not shown; for bootstrap values for all branches see S9 Fig.). Fossil taxa are indicated with “≪” and green branches. The four abbreviated fossil taxa in gray at the base of the phylogeny are the four rogue taxa (Eichstaetisaurus, Huehuecuetzpalli, Sineoamphisbaenia, AMNH FR 21444), shown in their phylogenetic positions as inferred in the combined analysis including all taxa (S8 Fig.). Photos include representatives of Dibamidae (Anelytropsis), Gekkota (Carphodactylidae: Underwoodisaurus), Scincoidea (Scincidae: Plestiodon), Amphisbaenia (Bipedidae: Bipes), Mosasauria (Tylosaurus), Serpentes (Boidae: Exiliboa), Anguimorpha (Xenosauridae: Xenosaurus), Polyglyphanodontia (Polyglyphanodon), Acrodonta (Agamidae: Calotes), and Pleurodonta (Phrynosomatidae: Sceloporus). See Acknowledgments for photo credits (except for Anelytropsis from T. M. Townsend).