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Adaptive Evolution of Synthetic Cooperating Communities Improves Growth Performance

Figure 3

Adaptive evolution of the co-culture.

Three parallel co-cultures were performed, represented as a purple solid line (co-culture 4), a green short dashed line (co-culture 5), and a black dotted line (co-culture 6). (A) Growth rates were calculated based on the starting and ending OD values for each passage. (B) Genomic DNA was extracted from frozen samples of the co-culture taken at the end of each passage (OD≈0.2). Relative populations of K and L were estimated using qPCR and used to calculate the ratio of K to L. The error bars represent standard deviations calculated using the method described in File S2.

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108297.g003