The Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking on Gray Matter Volume: Influence of Sex
Differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between nicotine dependent (NDs; n = 80) and control subjects (Controls; n = 80) shown in all subjects and separately by sex (NDs, n = 41 male; Controls, n = 41 male).
Representative MRI sagittal, axial, and coronal brain slices analyzed in SPM8 and overlain on the Montreal Neurological Institute brain. Slice shown is centered within the thalamus (x, y, z; 0, −16, 0). Hot colors represent regions of greater GMV, while cool colors represent regions of less GMV in NDs compared to Controls. T values range from 4.42 to 8.06, significant in whole brain analysis at p<0.001, and FWE cluster-corrected p<0.025. Images are displayed neurologically. An interactive visual display of all brain data in all three planes can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com (Available upon publication).