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Increasing fMRI Sampling Rate Improves Granger Causality Estimates

Figure 3

The dominant information flow calculated from the difference between two uni-directional Granger estimates among the visual (V), PPC, premotor (PreM), somatosensory (S), and motor (M) cortex ROIs at TR = 0.1 s, 0.5 s, 1 s, and 2 s.

The time series at 0.5 s, 1 s, and 2 s were SINC interpolated such that all time series are of the same length as the 0.1 s time series, which contains the real measured data. Significant causal modulations (p≤0.05) were shown in thick yellow arrows and connections showing a trend of causal modulation (0.05<p≤0.1) were shown in thin yellow arrows. Importantly, only very little improvement is observed in the estimates where the number of observations is artificially increased using the SINC interpolation procedure: the strongest connectivity patterns are, clearly, observed in the 0.1-s condition with only real data.

Figure 3