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Increasing fMRI Sampling Rate Improves Granger Causality Estimates

Figure 2

The dominant information flow calculated from the difference between two uni-directional Granger estimates among the visual (V), PPC, premotor (PreM), somatosensory (S), and motor (M) cortex ROIs at TR = 0.1 s, 0.5 s, 1 s, and 2 s.

Significant causal modulations (p≤0.05) were shown in thick yellow arrows and connections showing a trend of causal modulation (0.05<p≤0.1) were shown in thin yellow arrows.

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100319.g002