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Three-Dimensional Mid-Air Acoustic Manipulation by Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

Figure 1

Potential energy distribution of ultrasonic standing wave.

This figure is obtained based on Eqs. (1) and (2). The horizontal axes x/w and z/λ are the radial and axial directions of the beam, respectively. The vertical axis is the normalized potential energy. The gradient of this distribution gives the force on a small particle.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097590.g001