Evaluation of a Novel Magneto-Optical Method for the Detection of Malaria Parasites
Panel A: Red and blue curves show the frequency dependent MO signal for samples from the ring and schizont stage cultures, respectively, with various levels of parasite density given in µL−1 units on the right of the respective curves. The green curves shows the signal from uninfected reference samples. Data plotted with triangles and diamonds are the residual signal from freshly hemolyzed uninfected blood and water, respectively. The frequency scale corresponds to the rotation speed of the magnetic field. Panel B: Red and blue squares in panel B are the MO signal values measured at 20 Hz – indicated by a vertical solid line in panel A – for the dilution series prepared from the original ring and schizont stage cultures, respectively. Solid and open squares correspond to the duplicate samples labeled as samples #1 and samples #2. Triangles indicate the results obtained by remeasuring samples #1 with 24 h delay. The solid lines following the trend of the MO signal at higher parasite densities for ring (red line) and schizont (blue line) samples are guides for the eye. For ring and schizont stage samples with parasite densities lower than 10 parasites/µL and 1 parasites/µL, respectively, the MO signal does not further decrease. The green horizontal line shows the residual MO signal of uninfected blood, which is the mean detection limit of our method. The 95% confidence levels of this mean detection limit for the ring and schizont stage samples are indicated by red and blue dashed lines, respectively. Correspondingly, for ring and schizont stage samples with parasite density higher than 40 parasites/µL and 10 parasites/µL, respectively, the diagnosis is positive with a confidence of at least 95%. The background signal for freshly hemolyzed uninfected blood and water are also shown by dark and light grey lines. All these horizontal indicators are also shown in panel A for reference. The upper horizontal scale shows the corresponding levels of parasitemia.