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Using the Aesop's Fable Paradigm to Investigate Causal Understanding of Water Displacement by New Caledonian Crows

Figure 2

Average performance in all six experiments.

Mean proportion of choices made to the correct option, over 20 trials, in each experiment. (1: Sand v Water, 2: Sinking v Floating, 3: Solid v Hollow, 4: Narrow v Wide, 5: High v Low water levels, 6: U-tube.) Error bars are ±2 SE. * = significantly different from chance (binomial tests, p<0.001).

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092895.g002