Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem
a) Concentrations of bacteria in the feed and filtrate solutions. Inset shows fluorescence images of the two solutions. Scale bar is 200 µm. Error bars indicate ±S.D. for experiments performed on three different xylem filters. b) Fluorescence image of xylem filter cross-section showing accumulation of bacteria over the margo pit membranes. Scale bar is 20 µm. c) Low-magnification fluorescence image shows that bacteria are trapped at the bottoms of tracheids within the first few millimeters of the top surface. Scale bar is 400 µm. Arrow indicates top surface of the xylem filter and also the direction of flow during filtration. Autofluorescence of the xylem tissue also contributes to the fluorescence signal in (b) and (c). d), e) SEM images showing bacteria accumulated on the margo pit membranes after filtration. Scale bars are 10 µm and 2 µm, respectively.