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Effectiveness of Treatment Approaches for Children and Adolescents with Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Figure 3

Treatment efficacy on spelling performance.

Funnel plot displays treatment efficacy on spelling performance for each comparison of an experimental group with a control group. ADD = Adding phonemes; CG = Control group; DI = Direct instruction; DS = Decoding skills; EXC = Exceptional; MA = Morphological awareness; OWLS = Oral and written language skills; PAT = Phonological awareness training; PG = Placebo-control group; PHAB = Phonological analysis and blending; REG = Regular; SMS = Specific motor sequence; WIST = Word identification strategy training; WAT = Word analogy training; WW = Write a word.

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089900.g003