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Effectiveness of Treatment Approaches for Children and Adolescents with Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Figure 2

Treatment efficacy on reading performance.

Funnel plot displays treatment efficacy on reading performance for each comparison of an experimental group with a control group. ADD = Adding phonemes; CG = Control group; DI = Direct instruction; DS = Decoding skills; EXC = Exceptional; LPA = Sound-symbol correspondence and phonemic awareness; MA = Morphological awareness; OWLS = Oral and written language skills; PADS = Phonemic awareness and decoding skills; PAT = Phonological awareness training; PG = Placebo-control group; PHAB = Phonological analysis and blending; REG = Regular; SMS = Specific motor sequence; SP = Speech perception; SRT = Strategy reciprocal teaching; TCS = Text content and structure; TOD = Temporal order detection; WIST = Word identification strategy training; WAT = Word analogy training; WW = Write a word.

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089900.g002