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Density, Destinations or Both? A Comparison of Measures of Walkability in Relation to Transportation Behaviors, Obesity and Diabetes in Toronto, Canada

Figure 2

Transportation Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Residential Density and Availability of Walkable Destinations.

These figures depict the interaction between density and destinations in relation to transportation behaviours and related health outcomes. The average daily number of trips per person by walking or bicycling, public transit, and automobile were derived from the Transportation Tomorrow Survey (2006) for residents age 11 years and older. Proportion of the population aged 30 to 64 years that were overweight and obese was derived from 2003–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey data. Age-sex adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults aged 30 to 64 years was derived from the Ontario Diabetes Database, 2009. Residential density was calculated using data from the 2006 Canada Census and availability of walkable destinations was calculated using data from DMTI Spatial Inc. (2009), the City of Toronto (2009), and the Ministry of Education (2009).

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085295.g002