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Bringing Dicynodonts Back to Life: Paleobiology and Anatomy of a New Emydopoid Genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique

Figure 15

Niassodon mfumukasi neuroanatomy and inner ear anatomy.

Cranial endocasts in the cranium in dorsal (A), and left lateral (B) views. Cranial endocasts in dorsal (C), ventral (D), left lateral without the osseous labyrinth (E), left lateral view with the osseous labyrinth (F). Both osseous labyrinths in dorsal and anterior views (G) and both osseous labyrinths in right lateral view (H). aamp, ampulla of the anterior semicircular canal ca, carotid arteries; ascc, anterior semicircular canal; cc, crus comunis; ce, cerebelum; cn, cochlear nerve; cnI, olfactory nerve; cn VII, facial nerve; cn VIII, vestibulocochlear nerve; cnIX-XI, glossopharyngeal and vagoaccessory nerves; cnXII, hypoglossal nerves; en, epiphyseal nerve; fb, forebrain; fl, paraflocculus; is, isthmus; hscc, horizontal semicircular canal; hy, hypophysis; LOL, left osseous labyrinth; mo, medula oblongata; lag, lagena; ob, olfactory bulb; ot, olfactory tract; pamp, ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal; pflex, pontine flexure pscc, posterior semicircular canal; ROL, right osseous labyrinth; vcm + cn V, vena capitis medialis and trigeminal nerve; vcd, vena capitis dorsalis; vn, vestibular nerve.

Figure 15