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Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16

Figure 1

Path diagram representing the basic twin model.

A = additive genetic influence; C = shared environmental influence; E = non-shared (unique) environmental influence. Paths a, c and e = effects of A, C and E on the trait. rMZ and rDZ = genetic or shared environmental correlations for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341.g001