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Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Figure 1

Antiestrogenic (A) and antiandrogenic activity (B) of 18 bottled waters.

13 waters significantly inhibit estrogen receptor alpha, 16 samples antagonize androgen receptor (★★★p<0.0001, compared to controls with endogenous ligand). The activity was normalized to controls containing 17β-estradiol or testosterone (0% inhibition) and such without (100% inhibition). The results represent three extracts per sample tested in three experiments with eight replicates each.

Figure 1