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Replicate Phylogenies and Post-Glacial Range Expansion of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, in North America

Figure 4

Phylogeography of Wyeomyia smithii based on the combined 46-population tree (Fig. 3), on historical biogeography, and on the timing of glacial events.

Arrows indicate directions of range expansion based on Figure 3. Maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the last glacial maximum is plotted as a dotted line [6]. Two-letter abbreviations identify each state or province. Color codes are the same as in Figures 13. Map symbols represented by a triangle show mountain populations in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina (green) or in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania (brown). The filled orange symbol with the star indicates the mainland Maryland population (MD2). Numbers associated with each node or branch tip represent maximum parsimony bootstrap support for that clade. There are no support numbers for the QC, eON and neWI or the NJ, MA, and Eastern Shore MD populations (open circles) because they do not constitute a monophyletic grouping. e, eastern Ontario (ON1); w, western Ontario (ON2).

Figure 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072262.g004