Shorter Lines Facilitate Reading in Those Who Struggle
Participants read 208 words per trial, two trials per condition, in each of eight unique combinations of conditions. In a single trial all 208 words are displayed on a single page in the PAD condition, while in the POD condition (inset overlaid) 12 pages are required to display the same number of words. The figure superimposes gaze-tracking data sampled from the same participant. Blue dots indicate fixations. Leftward regressions (LEFT) are marked in red, while symbols in green are regressions directed upwards (UP). Note that the density of horizontal regressions is higher in the PAD condition compared with POD. This individual makes numerous leftward regressions –almost as if automatic– in the PAD condition. However, in the POD condition, the density of leftward regressions is reduced. Importantly, the figure illustrates that this reduction in horizontal regressions does not occur at the expense of regressions upwards.