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Dynamic Simulation and Metabolome Analysis of Long-Term Erythrocyte Storage in Adenine–Guanosine Solution

Figure 4

Prediction of adenine- and guanosine-dependent metabolic alterations during cold storage.

Panel A: Time-related changes of metabolic intermediates with or without adenine (ADE) and guanine (GUO). Simulation with both ADE and GUO (solid black, PAGGGM solution), without GUO (broken black), without ADE (solid gray), and without neither ADE nor GUO (dotted black), respectively. Upper glycolysis represents the total concentrations of G6P and F6P; middle glycolysis represents the total of F1,6-BP, DHAP, and GA3P; and non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (non-ox PPP) represents the total of R5P, RU5P, X5P, and R1P. The adenylate pool represents the sum concentration of AMP, ADP, and ATP. Total HX represents the sum of intracellular and extracellular HX. Panel B: Time-related change of ADE flux distribution through AMP to HX or to the adenylate pool. The ratio of ADE flux distribution into HX (gray filled curve) is calculated as JHX/(JHX + JANPpool) ×100, where JHX is the sum of enzymatic activities of purine salvage pathway, including AMP deaminase, AMPase, and adenosine kinase, and JANPpool is the activity of APK. 1st and 2nd panels show the ratio of ADE flux distribution into HX in the ADE(+)GUO(+) model and ADE(+)GUO(−) model, respectively. 3rd panel shows the time-related changes of total ADE flux (JHX + JANPpool) in the ADE(+)GUO(+) (solid black) and ADE(+)GUO(−) (broken black) model. Panel C: Time-related change of GUO flux distribution through R5P to glycolysis or purine salvage pathway. The ratio of GUO flux distribution into glycolysis (gray filled curves) is calculated as Jglycolysis/(Jglycolysis + Jpurine) ×100, where Jglycolysis is the sum of enzymatic activities of R5PI and TK1 and Jpurine is the activity of PRPPsyn. 1st and 2nd panels show the ratio of GUO flux distribution into glycolysis in the ADE(+)GUO(+) model and ADE(−)GUO(+) model, respectively. 3rd panel shows the total GUO flux (Jglycolysis + Jpurine) in the ADE(+)GUO(+) (solid black) and ADE(−)GUO(+) (broken black) models.

Figure 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071060.g004