Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies
(A.) World map of cumulative patents in photovoltaics (solar). Japan is the leading nation in terms of patent numbers, followed by the US and China (patent numbers through 2009 are shown in brackets). In addition there are 1951 patents in the European Union (EPO) and 2882 worldwide (not shown). (Patents in wind technologies are distributed similarly and therefore not shown. Japan is again the leading nation, followed by China and the US. There are also 702 patents in the European Union and 1484 worldwide.) (B.) World map of patents in coal-based electricity. China is the leading nation, followed by Japan, and the US. There are 887 patents filed in the European Union and 620 worldwide. (C.) Cumulative patents submitted by technology and nation indicate the dominance in terms of patent counts of certain countries, and also differences across countries in the relative importance placed on each technology.