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Distribution of Wild Mammal Assemblages along an Urban–Rural–Forest Landscape Gradient in Warm-Temperate East Asia

Figure 2

Surrounding land use of the camera-trapping sites.

Principal component analysis of the camera-trapping sites was performed based on land use (forest, agricultural land, open habitat [grassland and golf course], and urban area). Land use in five buffer sizes (500-, 1000-, 2000-, 4000-, and 8000-m radius) for each site were combined into one dataset (sites × land uses), and each study site appears five times on this graph. With this analysis we were able to calculate the PC1 value, which represented the position within the urban–rural–forest landscape gradient, of a single site at various spatial scales.

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065464.g002