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A Trans-Hemispheric Migratory Songbird Does Not Advance Spring Schedules or Increase Migration Rate in Response to Record-Setting Temperatures at Breeding Sites

Figure 2

Migration rate of purple martins in record warm year 2012 versus prior year(s).

Timing of spring migration at departure (dep), date crossing 23.4°N (x), breeding arrival date (arr) for breeding populations from a) Pennsylvania and b) Virginia. Spring migration rate during three stages en route (South America, SA; Central America, CA; North America, NA), c) Pennsylvania (2008-11, n = 18; 2012, n = 15) and d) Virginia (2011, SA n = 9, CA n = 6, NA n = 8; 2012, n = 10).

Figure 2