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Evolvability Is Inevitable: Increasing Evolvability without the Pressure to Adapt

Figure 9

Evolvability in the practical ER model with limited capacity niches.

The average evolvability of organisms in the population over evolutionary time is shown, which is itself averaged over 50 independent simulations that lasted 50,000 evaluations each. Note that evolvability of an organism is measured as the average number of different behaviors generated through 300 random mutations. The main result is that niching based on behavior significantly increases evolvability over a control that randomly assigns niches independently of an organism's behavior ( for all comparisons after 2,500 evaluations; Student's t-test).

Figure 9

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062186.g009