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Evolvability Is Inevitable: Increasing Evolvability without the Pressure to Adapt

Figure 8

True increasing evolvability in the evolved robots model with limited capacity niches.

The evolvability of organisms is shown averaged over 50 independent simulations that lasted 250 generations each. It is important to note that because the population size in the limited-niche model is much smaller, one generation of the passive model encompasses more individuals (2,000,000) than is considered over all generations in the niched model ( on average). In other words, the limited-niche model is more directedly and more efficiently biased towards evolvability. In particular, the difference in evolvability between the limited-niche model and the passive model is significant for all comparisons after the 50th generation (; Student's t-test).

Figure 8

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062186.g008