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Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Figure 7

Relationship of sound amplitude to measurements of wasp wing and body movement.

(A) Down-stroke displacement, (B) wing angular velocity, (C) abdominal angle related to sound amplitude, and (D) down-stroke displacement to abdominal position during consecutive wing strokes of a single boing in the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata. The horizontal arrows mark the first wing stroke; the vertical arrow in (D) marks the stroke producing the greatest sound amplitude. Hysteresis in the figures indicates that although wing velocity and abdomen elevation increase with sound amplitude at the beginning and decrease at the end of a boing, they are not causative.

Figure 7