Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Above: High-speed camera photographs (2,000 fps) of one wing cycle during a boing produced by downward (a–e) and upward (f–j) wing movement from a male Cotesia congregata displaying to an immobilized female. Each image represents 0.5 ms. Note that wings are less clear in the middle of the down and upsweep (images b–d and g–i) due to rapid movement. Below: Oscillograph of one cycle of a boing with wing positions in a-j keyed to time of occurrence.